Until about the beginning of the XVIII century European music did not have a clear national differences. The dominant Christian Church carried their common to all countries in the canons of European secular music was exposed to Italian, French, German style depending on the historical period.
One of the first studies of national creativity was the creation of John parry in 1742 the collection “Ancient British music”. It should be noted that the use of folklore in the music of that period was a phenomenon of exotic and did not aim to bring classical music closer to national traditions.
The age of romanticism gave the world a new musical aesthetic principles that are not adopted common start, and a bright, unique images. Wide dissemination of the national musical tradition was in 1850.
The very definition of a “national school” is causing a lot of contradictions. They are associated with the use by composers in their compositions folk tunes based on traditional European style. In addition, in one work often used folk tunes and Eastern melodies.
A common interest in folk art, the desire to touch the distinctive national traditions have shaken the dominance of the German-Italian romantic tendencies and gave rise to the evolution of the national music schools. National music is most clearly reflected in the Opera and vocal works.
Moravian duets domestic faculty. The progression of the Czech national faculty was severely influenced with the geopolitical situation from the nineteenth century. At the start of the century Bohemia had been a land determined by this Austro-Hungarian Empire. Persistent confrontation with all the metropolis caused the gigantic development of Patriotic belief and has been the catalyst for the development of such critical figures in art.The dad of this Czech national faculty, is just a composer, writer and conductor Bedrich Smetana (1824-1884), also a kid is called being a talented pianist and violinist. Being in constant battle with the regimen, sour cream and spent a couple of years in Sweden. Along with writing, he directed the Philharmonic society of Gothenburg, and also between 1866 and 1847, in his return to Prague, he directed the domestic theater. Yet another famed representative of this Czech Faculty had been Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904). Career follower of this aesthetic fundamentals of sour cream started like a performer: Dvorak has been a virtuoso violinist and after being an organist. The abrupt fame of this composer Antonin attracted two of this string “Slavonic dances”, written for piano.
Spanish music for a long period was under the influence of the traditions of the Italian masters, and any attempt to appeal to the national motifs were considered, at least, daring. Musical art of the country, almost devoid of national Opera, found support in the original genre tomatillo.
Tomatillo is a short comic musical piece with instrumental accompaniment, including fragments of folk origin. Spread throughout the Iberian Peninsula, more than half a century, tomatillo contributed to the emergence of Spanish lyrical music. A logical development was the birth of the genre of the Zarzuela and the appearance of such wonderful pieces as “playing with fire”, “long way”, “Rebel”, “Duet Africans” Spanish composers Fernandez Caballero, Federico Chueca and Ruperto Chappie. For the first time, wide international recognition, Spanish national music purchased through the music of Isaac Albeniz (1860-1909). His best works include “Iberia”, “Spanish Suite”, “12 common pieces”, which albéniz traveled on tour all over Europe, North and South America.
The next important stage in the development of Spanish national school was the work of Enrique Granados (1867-1913), Manuel de Falla (1876-1946), and Joaquin Turina (1882-1949). The works of these authors such as the ballet “Love the sorceress”, “the Aragonese Rhapsody”, “Nights in the gardens of Spain”, “Seville Symphony”, rooted authentic manifestation of Spanish folklore.
Scandinavian, Polish, Hungarian national school
Scandinavian composers. First and foremost, the appearance on the world stage Scandinavian authors associated with works of Edvard Grieg (1843-1907). World-famous Norwegian composer brought music to Ibsen’s drama “peer Gynt”, which is pronounced traditions of the people – the descendant of the legendary Vikings. Another product of the global scale in the work is Grieg piano Concerto in a minor, written in 1868.
Among Swedish composers stands out Johan August Söderman (1832-1876) and Franz Berwald (1796-1868), and the famous Finnish composer is Sibelius (1865-1957). Sibelius composed more than two hundred works, including seven symphonies and the famous “Sad waltz.”
Polish national school. Of course, Polish national music is associated primarily with the great Friderika Chopin, whose patriotism and ardent love of country, combined with the musical genius known around the world.
Divided the Patriotic views of Chopin and other well-known Polish artists such as stanisław Moniuszko (1819-1872) and Jan Paderewski (1860-1941). Stanislaw Moniuszko and musical Director of the Warsaw Opera, he composed over 270 chamber works, several operas, masses, songs. Most famous of his works are considered the Opera “Halka” (1847).
A brilliant virtuoso performer Jan Paderewski devoted his life to two bright ideas: music and the struggle for freedom of the enslaved homeland. In 1919 he was appointed Prime Minister and Minister of foreign Affairs of Poland, and later, during the Nazi occupation, headed by the national Council in exile. Among the musical heritage of Paderewski – Symphony in b minor, and numerous works for piano.
The Hungarian school. Hungarian melodies and folk songs were widely used great Johanesson Brahms “Hungarian dances” and Ferenc Liszt in “Hungarian rhapsodies”. However, the first composers who brought together a truly Hungarian music, and formed the national school, became Bela Vikar (1859-1945), Béla bartók (1881-1945) and zoltán kodály (1882-1967). These composers collected Hungarian folk songs and singing across the country, not forgetting the rural areas, coexist with Romania and Slovakia.
Not less full of national folklore music of the romantic composer Ferenc Erkel (1810-1893). His Opera “lászló Hunyadi” marked the beginning of the Hungarian musical theater. Erkel also known as the author of the national anthem of Hungary.